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A Saga of Sacrifice & Struggle 

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Conclusion

The Ghadar movement that started in 1913 amongst the patriotic, progressive and enlightened Indians abroad has gone through a great deal of changes based on the needs of time, but continues to inspire the people.

Eighty-five years of struggle have not disheartened them. They still want solutions to their problems. Shaheed Bhagat Singh, who was greatly inspired by the Ghadarites, particularly Kartar Singh Sarabha, wrote prophetically, "Our struggle will continue as long as a handful of men, be they foreign or native, or both in collaboration with each other, continue to exploit the labour and resources of our people. Nothing shall deter us from this path."

"Our struggle will continue as long as a handful of men, be they foreign or native, or both in collaboration with each other, continue to exploit the labour and resources of our people. Nothing shall deter us from this path."
Kartar Singh Sarabha

The history of Ghadar Movement clearly bears out the truth of Bhagat Singh's statement. It is also a reflection of the deep love that the South Asians resident abroad have for their countries, and that they are second to none in making sacrifices for the cause of freedom, dignity and prosperity. Although they may be resident abroad, due to the conditions back home, the flame of liberty of their lands is lit in their hearts and they do not hesitate to make any sacrifice for the liberation of their countries and a life of honour and dignity. The Ghadar Movement shows that they will carry on seeking solutions to the problems that plague them both at home and abroad. It also shows that the South Asians are part of their nations no matter where they are resident and they are moved by the concerns of their nations.

Literature Cited  

The Ghadr Directory, compiled by the Director, Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India, New-Delhi, 1934. p.1

An Account of Ghadr Conspiracy, F.C. Isemonger & J. Slattery, Indian Police, Punjab, Lahore, 1919, p. 14-15.

United States of America vs. Franz Bopp, et al., in the District Court of the United States for Southern Division of the Northern District of California, First Division, volume 1, 1917

Agnes Smedley, Janice and Stephen R. Mackinon, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988 p.58

Ghadar Party Da Itihas (Punjabi), Part 1, 1912-1917, Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committee, Jullunder, 1969, p.99.
Ibid, p.101
Ibid, p.102

United States of India, A Monthly Review, San Francisco, September 1923

Bhagat Singh Bilga, Interview with Jaspal Singh and Jagdip Mann, June 30,1997, Birmingham, U.K

An Account of Ghadr Conspiracy, F.C. Isemonger & J. Slattery, Indian Police, Punjab, Lahore,1919, p.44

Ghadr Di Gunj, OR MIC 11599/28,OIOC London.

Ghadar Party Da Itihas (Punjabi), Part 1, 1912-1917, Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committee, Jullundhur, 1969, p.106

An Account of Ghadr Conspiracy, F.C. Isemonger & J. Slattery, Indian Police, Punjab, Lahore,1919, p.44
Ibid, p.172

Political and Judicial Report, L/P&J/7/1059/1717, India Office Library, London

Terrorism in India 1917-1936,compiled in the Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India Press, Simla, 1937, p.192

Home (Political) April 1916, 471, Banaras Conspiracy Case (Judgement)

Ghadar Party Da Itihas(Punjabi), Part 1, 1912-1917, Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committee, Jullundhur, 1969, p.279
Ibid, p. 244
Ibid, p. 264-268
Ibid, p. 248

Communism In India, 1924-1927, Compiled in the Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India, Calcutta,1927 (Confidential) p.150
Ibid, p. 41

Theses, Resolutions and Manifestos of the First Four Congresses of the Third International, Pluto Press London, 1980 p.327.

Ibid, p. 413
Ibid, p. 158

The Ghadr Directory, compiled by the Director, Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India, New-Delhi, 1934. p. 2

The Trial of Bhagat Singh, A.G. Noorani, Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 1996

Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India, volume III B, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1979.p.155
Ibid, p.3

Ghadar Lehar De Unfole Warkey, Bhagat Singh Bilga,Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committe, Jullundhur,1989, p.180

Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India, volume III C, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1979.p.94-95.

Bhagat Singh Bilga, Interview with Jaspal Singh and Jagdip Mann, June 30,1997, Birmingham, U.K

Hindustani Ghadar Party Formed, Chingari, Organ of the Hindustani Ghadar Party,November 1970. Toronto

What Kind of Party, Discussion, Spring 94, Vol1. No.1, National Publications Centre, Toronto, 1994.
Ibid, p. 49

Whither India, Lok Awaz Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 1996, p.16

Ibid, p. 25
Ibid, p. 41
Ibid, p. 54
Ibid, p. 57
Ibid, p. 98
Ibid, p. 109

 

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